Best Headphones Under 100$

Are you searching the best option for you to buy a best headphones under 100 dollars?

Well, honestly speaking, no matter what your budget is, in recent, most of the buyer face the common fact that they all look for the top quality while buying headphones. Everyone expects to have the best sound quality with excellent comfort and aesthetic appeal within the budget. However, more recent revolution of technology and the compiition among the manufaturers have made it possible. The quality of headphones have been improved and there are lots of option available for you in the market. To make a strong position in the market, the brands are now launching cheaper product. But do not think they neglect the quality.It is very astonishing that somehow they have managed to assemble the desired features on the price.

Though there are lots of options to choose, it is still extremely challenging to choose the best product within your lmited budget. The main reason behind this is that when you arefo to buy headphones, you will simply lose yourself amon the thousands of choices and it becomes hard for you to chose the best one considering your requirements.

However, here is  a short listed criteria which you need to consider while buying headphones.

  1. First criteria is that you obviously need to keep your budget in your mind.
  2. Second criteria is he sound quality. You need to judge yourself on the topic that how much you are willing to compromise the sound quality. You need to find out whether you are just a casual listener or an audiophile.
  3. Third criteria is the comfort. Comfor is a very important factor whether you buy a cheap or an expensive one. The poor quality headphone may cause you headache, hurt your ear or even may hamer your ear and your listening experience.
  4. Fourth but not the leat is the aesthetic appeal. Do you want to buy a fashionable headphones which will represent your style and personality? Or, will you like o go for an ordinary one? It is your choice.

So, it is mys uggestion for you to list all of your requirements first. So that when you are buying you do not miss anything.

By now, as you are well introduced with the criteria and have listed your requireements, it is time to introduce you with some best products within the range that are availabe in the market for different purposes. The first one are recommended for those who want the most modern facilities and the best design and performance. The second one is for those individuals who are not willing to be tensed about the design and the third one is recommended by all audiophiles which allow incredible sound with retro design.

Audio-Technica ATH-M30

Audio-Technica ATH-M30This is one of the best quality headphones under 100 dollars in recent market. besides, they are also recommended by many audiophiles saying that it will serve you best in the range. It is light and strong and serves you for a long time along with fulfilling all your requirements. If you compare it with other Audio-Technica products; for example M50s, you may find it a little bit dull. But you need to think about your budget. Audio-Technica M50 will cost you double than your budget.

Further, Audio –Technica ATH-M30 incorporats soft cushion to allow you comfort to use hem for a long period.

The design also includes padding on the head to give you extra comfort. The closed area will enhance your listening experience by blocking any external sound.

However, they can not cancel external sound totally but very close to that. The sound is awesome with rich bas. But it can disappoint you a bit sometimes.

On the other hand, the most disappointing factor about this product is that your ears may sweat in warm days. It may also happen for a longer time use of this headphone as there is not enough ventillation system incorporated in the design. Another factor is that the earcups of this product is smaller than your ear. So, while using, it will clamp down your ear and make you feel uneasy.

Further, this set does not include microphone. So, if you need to call others, you need to do manually.

Koss PortaPro with Case:

Koss PortaPro with CaseThis is the cheapest product in the list. The design is similar to the 80’s headphone which has mixed reviews.

On the other hand, if you think about the quality of sound, this headphone is awesome. It has incredible base which will give you superior sound experience. It will comfort your ear even if you use it for a long time. But the metal head band will tangle and pull your hair which will give you discomfort. Again,  there is some chance of the leakage of the sound. So, if you want to have activated noise cancelling option, you need to reconsider your choice. Another disadvantages is that they are that much durable. But they will give you life time warranty so you do not need to think about it.

In short, this productis for those who are not so tensed aabou the design but want a good sound experience.

Sony MDR7506:

Sony MDR 7506Though This headphone is the oldest among the three, this sound excellent.

They are over-ear type and has significant effect on noise level reduction. Inaddition, this release you from changing your volume and give you support to not to listen music in high volume and hence, save your ear drums from effective loss.

In performance, this serves equally your satisfaction in the manner of comfort and botht the sound quality. The downsidesof this product is that your ear may weat and you may feel discomfort if yo have large ears. Further, the coil cable also represents the disadvantages. But, aboveall, this is a great choice while you are travelling.

These are just my three choices. Obviously, you can find many other modern devices if you search in the market or in the internet. Make sure you have passed a moderate time before buying to ensure the best in the price.

The Best Record Players Of 2015

After a long time, record player has been able to find its way back to the music lovers. The most popular means of sixties had lost its fight with the cassette player, the CD player on the question of portability and simplicity in use. But, its warm and reach sound has ensured its spot again. Many manufacturers are now interested in manufacturing new versions of record player. That is why now we can find hundreds of record player manufacturing companies. The inclusion of modern technologies has given it a new dimension. Many record companies are now competing with each other on the question of price and quality. Here is a list of the best record player of 2015 for various price ranges.

Best record player under 200£

Product name: Pro-Ject Elemental
Brand name: Pro-Ject
Price: 150£

This model of Elemental is considered as the best step for the company to climb the vinyl ladder. It serves the best and justifies its price. It has preadjusted arm and catridge. So that you do not have suffer to attach them. It also has preset its tracking weight. Besides, this record player has belt driven system and supports two rotational speed 33 1/3 RPM and 45 RPM.

Best record players

Further, this model does not include a system to level it or even to isolate it from any kind of external vibrations. So, you need to have proper setup. Again, many consumers who love to have electronic speed change option, they will find the product a little bit disappointing. Because this model requires manual operation to change the speed.

However, this model offers you a lot of good options. For example; it has DC motor whic provides the smoothest service. On the other hand, the arm is well designed with proper weight balance.


  • Dimensions: 430 X 300 X 90 mm
  • Weight: 2.7 kg
  • Belt drive sytem
  • Straight and manually operated tonearm
  • Has RCA output port
  • Consumed about 4W

Best record player under300£

Product Name: Rega RP1
Brand Name: Rega
Price: 230£

Best record players

This is one of the excellent budget device manufactued by Rega. It is simple and includes effective mechanism.

It consists of a rectangualar shape pin which has three feet and made of rubber. Further, the plinth works as a support for main bearing. The arm of this model is RB101 which is a modern version of Rega’s well known RB300 tonearm.

This  model is operated manually and has belt drive mechanism.


  • Dimensions: 17.5 X 15 X 4 inches
  • Weight: 5.44 kg
  • Belt drive system
  • Magnetic cartridge
  • Hand assembled Rega RB101 tonearm
  • Low vibration motor.

Best record player under 1000£

Product name: Rega RP3/Elys2
Brand name: Rega
Price: 550£

Best record players

This model is awarded asthe product of year, 2014. It is an excellent all-rounder manufactured by Rega Research Limited. It is the latest production of Rega which will provide you the feel of rretro music of seventies with the most modern features.

It is designed such that it will force you to love it more and more as the day passes. It is very easy to use and has very high quality setup with high reliability. If you can use it with proper care, it will serve you through he wholelife.


  • Dimensions: 445 X 115 X 360 mm
  • Weight: 5.6kg
  • Can play two rotational speed: 33 1/3 and 45 RPM
  • Hand assembled RB303 tonearm
  • Magnetic catridge
  • Double brace technology
  • 24V low noise motor

Best record player under 800£+

Product name: Clearaudio Concept
Brand name: Clearaudio
Price: 1000£

This model has been awarded as the best record player at 800£+ in 2014. They are well designed and very easy to use. They are very simple and have magnetic cartridge connected with the tone arm. The package of this model will come to you with everything being setup from the company.

Best record players

The Clearaudio Concept does not have auto on/off option but it has knob so that you can change the rotational speed automatically. It has 5.5lb platter  which is driven by a DC motor. However, the platter is placed onto a subplatter which is made of plastic.


  • Dimensions: 420.1 X 350 X 125 mm
  • Weight: 7.5 kg
  • Belt drive mechanism
  • Magnetic cartridge
  • Can play three rotational speed 33 1/3, 45 and 78 RPM
  • Consumed power 1.5W

Best record player for 5000£+

Product name: Clearaudio Ovation
Brand name: Clearaudio
Price: 5995£

Best record players

This is one of the finest model of the Clearaudio. This record player is designed cleverly and provides the solution of all the problems related to any record player.

The plinth of this model has a sandwich structure. It consists of two Aluminium plates connected with a Panzerholz layer. Panzerholz is mainly a wood which is dense and heavily processed so that the final product is strong enough to give it a bullet proof facility. It also works as a damping agent.


  • Dimension: 420.1 X 350 X 125 mm
  • Weight: 13.50kg
  • Can play records of 33 1/3, 45 and 78 RPM
  • Consumed 8.60W

Ways to clean your flute

The flute may seem very simple to you but they also have some delicacy due to the presence of keys, tone holes. They are complex and made from soft metals. All of these makes the flute very fragile and taht is why the flute requires a great care. You should be careful when you are cleaning or even assembling or disassembling them. Any kind of mishandling may bent the flute which will lead to the distortion of sound. So, maintaining flute is equal important as it is to play the right tone. Most of the artists starts their lesson with a basic flute. But as they gradually convert to more advanced one as they become the master. In the whole process, they need to clean and polish their flute.

Dust and moisture are the greatest enemy of the flute. You need to ensure that your flute is dry. Again, if the flute is not properly cleaned, the pads will absorb moisture and swell. Furthe, you must be aware of the fact that whenever you play the flute, the moisture is captured in the flute. It will cause the flow of less air into the flute. The moisture also wears away the soft metal of the flute. The result is the awkard sound and poor audio quality. Here are feww tips which will guide you to take the best care of your flute.

How to clean your flute

Maintain FluteYou should keep in mind that no matter how much you care about your flute, it will get worse and worse with the each use. However, the first step of cleaning starts with the disassembling of flute. If you disassemble it you will find three parts. They are:

  1. The head joint: They have lip plate called embouchure plate. At embouchure plate, the musician rests his lip and blow air through the mouth hole.
  2. The main body: This part holds the keys, tuning slides as well as tennon. It works as the link between the head joint and the foot joint.
  3. The foot joint: This is the shortest part of the flute and carries holes.

Now, the ways to clean the flute is discussed below.

  1. At first, gather all the things you need to clean the flute. You should have a soft cloth and a rod. Do not worry about the rod. You will find them in the package of the flute. In the case of soft cloth, you can use spare handkerchief or any piece of cloth. There is also options to buy cloth which are speccially made to clean the flute.clean-your-flute-1
  2. Now, if you want to clean the inside of the head joint and foot joint, at first you should wrap the cloth around the rod so that it will form a thread shape. Cover the whole rod with the cloth. This will ensure hat there will be no scratch while cleaning. Now, insert the rod slowly into the head joint and twist a little when you clean. Do not do this in hurry. It will hamper the key pads. Follow the same procedure to clean the main body and the foot joint.
  3. To clean the outer surface, simply employ the soft cloth. Never use any kind of polishing metarial or water to clean the outer surface. Use of micro fibre polishing cloth will ensure that no fingerprints or oily surfaces are left.Soft Cloth
  4. Use rubbing alchohol to sterilize the lip plate.
  5. Always take your time while cleaning. Never rush over the process. Give special attention on not to employ pressure on any part of the flute.

Headphones: types and characteristics

Headphones, previously known as head-phones, are a set of mini loudspeakers which are designed for individual listening puposes only. They are also known as earphones, cans, earspeakers or colloquially. The headphones are basically an electrostatic transducer which are utilized to transform the electric signal to sound. They are yours privae audio source. In this matter you can differentiate the headphones with the loudspeakers as the loudspeakers are for listening music in an open environment involving your surroundings.

Headphones may have wire connected to the source or they may be bluetooth supported.

However, you can find different types of headphones providing different sound qualities available in the market. The size of headphones, the mechanism used to produce the sound, the construction combinedly affect the sound quality of the ehadphones.

In general, you can classify the headphones into four catagories: circumaural, supra-aural,earbud and in-ear.


Circumaural HeadphonesThey are sometimes referred as full size headphones. They have circular earpads to cover the ears. As they completely encompass the ears, these headphones can be utilized to seal the ears against external sound if properly designed.

However, du to their size, the may weigh a little high. There are some products which may even weigh upto 1 lb. Besides, these headphones require the ergonomic headband along with earpads to reduce the discomfort caused by the weight.

Supra- aural

Supra-auralIt has pads pressed against the ears. They were the most popular types of headphones that were used in the 1980s. They are generally small in size and weigh lighter than the circumural headphones. However, they may also cause discomfort because of the pressure on the ear.

Open or closed back

Both of the above mentioned headphones may again classify into two groups on the basis of the construction of earcups


As the name refers, this headphones have opening at the back of the earcups. Though the opening causes the leakage of the sound and the insertation of outside noises, they provide the most natural sound. So, you can feel like listening to a loudspeaker.


They have completely closed earcups. Thus they hinder the entrance of outside noises. The user feel like the sound is coming from his head. The closed back headphones are capable of producing strong bu low frequency comparing to the open-back headphones.


Semi-openThey have the combined construction of the open-back and the closed-back headphones. As a result, the sound quality is also the resultant of the combination of the both types. They have chamber which serves the purpose of blocking the sound partially.


The headphones have the same characteristics as the dynamic loudspeakers.

  1. Impedence: Both low and high impedence headphones are available in the market. The range of low impedence headphones are 16 to 32 ohm and for the high impedence they fluctuate between 100-600 ohms. However, the increase in impedence requires additional voltage.

    In recent days, the newest models are incorporating low impedence to decrese the need of addiional voltage so that they can be powered by battery. This, in turns, gives extra facility in portability.

  2. Sensitivity:

    Thisis the measure of the effective conversion of the electrical signal into sound of an earphones. Thus, you can know the level of the loudness of a headphone for a particular electrical drive. The sensitivity is emasured in the decibles.

    Combining a higly sensitive headphones with a high power amplifier will produce higgh volume which is dangerous and will harm your headphones. The most preferred one is of medium sensitive headphones. They ranges between 110 to 120 dB. However, the doctors always recommend to avoid listening music more than 85 dB fo a long time. It will hamper your ear drums and decrease your listening power.

How record player influenced the culture

To many speaker, bloggers or the researchers of music, the invention of record player plays one of the most significant role of in changing human behaviour. Though in early ages, most of the recorded songs were performed by the marching bands but to John Phillip Sousa, one of the most recognized band leader in the history of America, told that the invention of record players had made life easy for the people. He mentioned that it was a great mean for the people who could not attend the performance. He praised the contribution of record player as it helped to spread the music. But at the same time, he was afraid of the peoples reluctance towards the creation of new music pieces.

However, recording of music opened a new door and influence many others to experiment with it. It was not so far from then that the music of the world faced a huge changes. There were many forms of music becoming available day by day and people got attracted to them. It also became a great source of income. Business on record players, recordings etc went high day by day. It was a great chance for the local musicians to record their musics and sell them. It made them famous and also gave them a chance to show the world their talent.

The most significant role of the record player is that they built a bridge between the blacks and whites in the United States. In 1920s, the black artists got popularity due to their jazz music. Later, in the 60s, Motown artist and the rappers got famous. The music broke the barriers and all the culture of hatred for the blacks. The black artists began to sell their records and the more days passed, their demand went up high. They were invited to play songs in the parties. Thus, record player played an important role to change the history.

Jazz music

The fame of the record player and the vinyl recordings touched the highest pick in 1960s. By this time, almost every city of America had atleast one record player shop. even, it became a part and parcel of daily life. Every house even a mine worker owned a record player. People found a new source of entertainments. Many chose record player to change their mood after a long tiring day. After coming home to many male parts of the family, it was  aregular routine to play the record, sat on a rocking chair and relaxed with a cup of tea or a bottle of beer. They were blessed with warm and rich sound of the record player. Again, at that time, the presence of record player was considered as a sign of good party. People loved to join such parties and made them flown away with the music. Besides, having a record player would describe your great taste. It wiould ensure your position among the friends at higher position.

  • As the hip-hop and Djing became famous day by day, many club owners became interested in having multiple turntables. There were competitions among the clubs to play more unique music and made the people dance with the tunes.  Moreover, the presence of record player was must if you wanted to have a romantic date with your spouse or your boyfriend/girlfriend. That was why many resturant gave the facility of playing music to create more romantic atmosphere.

  • At that time many famous speech were recorded and hence, spreaded worldwide. It gave a chance to the people to listen to the pioneers of the world. They were motivated by the speech of the world famous personals.

  • Record player also motivated many movie makers to incorporate them to create the perfect atmosphere. The Mechanics, Shawshank Redemption, High Fidelity etc movie included record player in a very suitable way.

  • In short, we can say that the record player affected the habbit of human. They changed the thinking of people about music. Morever, they united the people all around the world through the music.

Benefits of practicing piano scales

To many pianists, practicing piano scales is must if you want to improve your technical skills and achieve brilliancies. There is no other way to become a master without practicing it. It will help you to play mechanically and correctly and hence, the more rythmic and harmonous sound.

A good piano technique helps you to improve your inner artistic talents and your performance. Keep in mind that if you really want to learn piano from your heart, you will never find practicing scales boring. Rather, you will become more interested to learn more and more, find out different techniques and thus improving your inner talents and skills.

Piano Andres Bello

However, if you practice scales of piano following a systematicc way, you will improve your pianists skills. You will improve you techniques and enhance your capability to understand the tones and harmonies. In a word, it will enhance your listening.

Technical benefits of practicing scales:

  1. To master the technical efficiency, you should pratice your notes everyday. It will allow you to achieve perfection. However, practicing scales is an unavoidable part of great pianists.
  2. Practicing scaling is considered as the warm up for you before starting your piano lessons. It steches your arms, fingers and wrists and prepare them for you lessons. By now, you must have realized the importance of proper warm up. It reduces the chances of any kind of hand injurieswhich can happen during praticing delicate pieces. In a research it has been found tha 15-30 minutes warm up will give you a perfect start for your practice.
  3. Practicing scales in a systematic manner will allow you to improve the sound quality you produce. It will help you to correct your body actions such as your finger positions, your wrist actions. It will give you motion and more controll over your fingers. Further, it will increase your coordination skills and help you to master the key attack and multitasking.
  4. Scales represent the technical patterns, positional blueprints and fingering formulas of a piano. They are not accumulated in a single piece. Rather they involve all the integral parts of pianos. Once you gain your control over these patterns, you will achieve your excellency and can unlock many mysterious doors of many technical difficulties. So, if you fall into any kind of tough situation you can find the solution by yourselves. Then, you can play your notes without any difficulty and consuming less time to know them from the scratch.

Let me discuss the effect of practicing scales more. By now you have known that this will increase your hearing. Now, let us see how this will help you further.

Scales teach us the system of modes and tonalities practically. Even you can define them as the table of musical language. We can learn about making high or short notes from books or online tutorials or fro other means. But by pressing each finger and feeling them individually in practical will obviously provide you a better look into the pianos. It will help you to figure out different notes, the function and sound of different keys individually. It will increase you harmonic thinking. By practicing one or two years, you can obviously become an expert pianists.

However, along with technical benefits, practicing scales will also allow you enormous expressive benefits. By practicing properly, you can develop your phrasing. Set up a goal for you.Try to achieve it while you are practicing. Try to learn from your heart. Do not get upset if you find it difficult. Practice more. It will decrease the rigidity of your finger and you will find ultimate pleasure one day for sure.

Record player manufacturing companies

Record player, a classical invention of Edison, has once again found its way into the moddern world. Many companies are now interested in producing record players with modern facilities. There is a high level race presented between the companies to supply the best options in a comfortable budget. Here is a little details about some of the record player manufacturing companies.

  • Crosley: Crosley is one of the biggest brand which produces record player. It has a variety of options while choosing turntable, stylus, catridge etc. Many of them are budget friendly.
    The products of Crosley products are outstanding and have been able to attract the consumer’s satisfaction. They provide the rechangeable facilities which give their products an extra dimensions. That is why many music lover consider there product as the number one in the rating.
  • GPO: They are patronized by a British brand named ProTelX. Their products are inspired by the retro music and are the combination of retro music and modern facilities. They concentrate onto provide you such a record player that will make you nostalgic. Similar to the Crosley, they also produce some other products such as telephones, radios etc.
  • Linn: Linn is one of the most popular record player manufacturing company of the modern world. They manufacture the turntables with the best facilities and performance. They imerged into the market in 1972 with their product LP12 turntable which is still considered oneof the best turntable and available in the market.
  • Pioneer: Pioneer is now a leading brand in he world of electronics producing car, houshold accessories etc. They provide the highest quality turntable for the DJ purpose. They are probably the best options if anyone want to have the most modern record player. They have powerful sound systems and their driving system of turntable is superb highlighting the moder design.
  • Pyle: The most amazing fact about ths company is that they provide the waterproof facilities. They have electronic products and accessories suitable to use both inside and outside. They gained popularity to the music lovers by supplying high quality audio system to play in car or in home, may be for personal amusement or just for the professional parties.
  • Technics: Technics is a brand of Panasonic Corporation. They produce varieties of amplifiers, recievers, turntables etc. They are the company which first marketed the turntable having direct driving system. The model was SL-1100. Their another great creation SL-1200 is recognized as the “ Industry standard ” turntable in the DJ industry.
  • Thorens: This is a Swiss company which produces high end audio equipment. They are mostly known for their turntables. They started their production in 1903 inspired by Edison’s phonograph. They are recognized as the first manufacturer of electric record player in 1928. They were among the top manufacturer of record player between 1950s to 1960s.
  • Dual: As the name indicates, the products of Dual have two mode to supply power; from direct electricilty or with the help of wind up mechanism. They started their business be producing parts of record players in 1907. They expanded their business at a great speed after the World War II when they employed 3,000 employees in their different factories.
  • Gramophone Company: They are UK based one of the oldest recording company. In 1931 they merged with Electric and Musical Industries limited and began their production under the name “The Gramophone Company Limited”.
  • Audio Technica: They are one of the Japanese company who has been doing this business for the last 52 years. They are also famous as the oldes headphone manufacturing company.
  • Lenco: They are one of the associates of STL Group of brands which is owned by Dutch patronized brand of audio and video. They include various techniques to run their record player which make their product more easy to use.

Comparison between vinyl records and CDs or DVDs

Record player was a great media of entertainment for the people of 20th century. Edison invented this classic music device with which man was able to both record and play the sound. But after the 70s, the portability and complexity to handle the record players faces the question of many music lovers. Many cheap and light version of music instruments became available. People converted into the users of more flexible musical instrument. CDs and DVDs became more popular day by day and the record player began to fade away from the history. But, there remains a question whether vinyl of record player sound is better than CDs and DVDs. At first let me tell you a short description on these three means to carry sound.

Vinyl of record player:

Vinyl records are analouge medium to store the sound. It has a flat disc made of polyvinyl chloride. This flat disc is inscribed with spiral groove. The height of the grooves depend on the sound intensity. When you place the needle of the stylus onto the grooves and plays it with the turntable, the grooves make the stylus to vibrate and hence, the required sound is created again.


The full name is compact disc. They have optical disc to store the sound. The invention of the CDs were to store and play sound only. But later they were utilized to store the video too.

They have diameter of 4.7 inch and can hold music about 80 min long or nearly about 700MB.


They are the same format as the CDs. They can hold upto 4GB. The standard DVD has diameter of 12 cm and there capacity ranges from 6.92 MB/cm2 to 18.0 MB/cm2 .

Is the vinyl produced better sound than the CDs and DVDs:

You can easily find out the answer by differentiating between the analog and digital means to record sound. Vinyl and CDs or DVDs are respectively analog and digital forms of recording.

comparison between analod sound signal to the CD and DVD output

From the graph, you can easily find out that the real sound is analog by nature. A digital recording disintegrates the analog sound ( for CDS the sound is divided into 44100 parts per second) and quantify the each section with a proper accuracy ( for CDs, they are compared to the accuracy of 16 bit that means there are 65,536 of possible values).

This indicates that a digital recording does not catch the whole sound wave. It only creates a wave through certain steps which has close characteristics of the original ones. By this way, the sounds which go faster, for example the beats of drums or the tone from the trumpet, will distort easily as the change of the wave is instantaneous.

In the stereo system used in home, the CD and DVDs coverts the digital sounds into analog signal and pass it to the amplifier. Then the amplifier amplifies the level of voltage to a certain level which is powerful enough to run the speaker.

On the other hand, the vinyl records have groove implemented onto the flat disc which is mirror of the original sound. It is analog by definition and there is no chances of the loosing of the information. The signal is directly passed to the amplifier and any type of conversion is not necessary which indicates that the wave on the recordings are more precise and accurate. As a result, the record give warm and richer sound. The only downside of the record player is that they require ultimate attention in handling. Any slightly misake may damage the records completely. On the other hand, CDs and DVDs do not require that much attention.

Techniques to use the pedals of pianos

Pedals are simple levers attached to the piano to have some xtra control over the tunes. However, the mastering of pedal techniques is not easy. They require the combination of knowledge, technical skill, experiece and also your creativity. You can have a good pedaling instict by improving your hearing and knowledge on piano.

Morever, pianos are the only instruments which do not let you to control the sound once it is produced. Once we press the key, the sound will fade gradually and if we release the key, it will immediately stop the vibration and so the sound will stop. Further, in piano, it is also very difficult to change the depth of the sound. To eliminate all these problems , we need to engage the padels.

Pressing and releasing techniques of piano pedals

Always press or release the pedals slowly. try to think that your foot is a part of piano pedals and is connected with it. Always concentrate on not to make sound while pressing or releasing it. You should not rush or sudden release it. As this will increase the chance of making sound. Also keep in mind that your foot should cover up more than the half of the pedals. It is also dependent on the size of your shoes. But always try to place you foot near to the rounded part of the pedals.

You should mind that the music you created is related to the way you used the pedal. Smooth and silent action is mandatory for he better performance.

Three main padelling techniques

Pedals of Piano

  1. The delayed pedal: This technique is also known as indirect pedals, retarded pedal, overlapping pedal, syncopated pedal and legato pedal. It involves the pressing of the sustain pedal when you have played a note and before realesing the keys. It will connect the sound with the next note and thus helps you to connect particular notes. It also helps you to maintain harmony between the notes.
  2. The simultaneous pedal: This technique is also known as direct pedal or rythmic pedal. It requires the pressing of the pedals and the keys at the same time. The result is the more rich and deep sound. This technique will help you to produce more intense sound. However, this pedal is suitable for playing in waltzes which is a dancing character. This short padel helps to make the sound more sharp and so that you have more rythmic sound with better quality.
  3. The preliminary pedal: They are the easiest techniques but the result is enormous. It really can create amazing effects. It requires to press the pedal before the keys. So that, it will activate all the resonating parts of the piano and make the sound more strong.

Other techniques to play the sustain pedal

Sustain pedal

  1. The full pedal: This techniques is used excessively by the beginners. This requires the gradual presssing and releasing of the pedal all the time you playing a piano.
  2. The half pedal: They requires some techniques to play. That is why they are not suitable for the beginners. There are two divisions of half padels. The first one is pressing the pedal so that it goes half way down and then releasing it slowly. By doing this, the dampers are raised but not connected to the strings. So, the strings are allowed limited vibrations. The sound continues but in a different tone.
    The other one is pressing the pedal to the ground and not releasing it. This technique is very powerful and requires skill to apply. It strengthens the lower notes whiile uneffected to the higher tones.
  3. The quarter pedal and other pedaling tehniques: The professional pianists do not play with pedal by the laws written in a book. All of them have thousand of different techniques of their own and like to play accordingly. As you become master of piano day by day, you can also engage your knowledge and skill to have one of your own and improve it.

Pickup Systems Of A Record Player

Record player is an amazing creation of Thomas Alva Edison. It produces sound by moving a stylus on a record. The sound is recorded on the disc as the deviation of grooves. Whenever the stylus is moved on the record, it vibrates due to the ups and downs of the grooves and hence produce sound. This vibration is further transferred to the tonearm followed by the catridge. Thus the catridge or the pickup sustem plays a very important role. They transform the vibration into the electrical signal. The better the signal transformation, the smoother the production of sound. So, nobody can deny the role they play to produce the warmth music. Due to the technological improvemeent we have now different kinds of pickup systems available for the record player.

  • Piezoelectric (crystal/ ceramic) catridge:

    This type of pickup systems were used in early electronic phonographs. The crystal used in this type is generally Rochelle salt. However, this system uses the movement of the stylus in the groove to produce electrical voltage. This pickup system using a crystal is relatively powerful and produce a higher signal level. So, it requires less amplification.
    No matter what, it is very difficult to make this pickup system complementory for quality sound  system. This system has more chances to wear and distortion due to the stiff coupling of the crystal and the stylus.
    Another disadvantages of this system is that the crystals are hygroscopic. They absorb the moisture and thus hinders the movement of pickup system.

    Crystal phonograph

  • Magnetic catridges:

    There are two available concepts of magnetic catridges; they are known as moving magnet and moving coil. Among them, moving system was mostly used. However, both of the types use the same principle generated from electromagnetic induction and the stylus for both tyoe is made from diamond.
    The stylus of this system is attached to the cantilever which is basically a tiny metal. The centiliver is further hung by plastic of high elasticity. This mechanism allows the stylus to move freely in any direction.
    Again, the the centiliver is installed on a parmanent magnet or a set of small coils. This magnet is located near a set of coils either fixed or moveable. In both cases the movement of stylus creates the fluctuation in he magnetic field and hence, induces current in the coils. Further this current is transmitted to the amplifier to process and amplify it in order to run a loudspeaker.
    Generally, most of the moving magnet catridges provide the option of replacing the stylus when needed. This allows the users a great opportunity of not replacing their favourite record player and also saving money.
    Magnetic Catridges

  • Strain-Gauge catridges:

    They act like a variable resistor. Their resistance depend on the vibratoary movement of the stylus. Thus the catridge controls the voltage supplied by the preamplifiers. However, they posseses certain quality which make them superior to the magnetic catridge. They have better electrical connection between the catridge and the preamplifier. Further, they are capable of producing sound of 50 kHZ. This is only possible due to their special mechanism introducing both electrical and mechanical advantages and this also includes a reduction of losses due to high magnetic frequency.
    The strain-gauge catridge can also measure the vertical tracking force using their sensitivity.
    There are obviously some restrictions in the mechanism of strain-gauge catridges. They require the presence of a special preamplifier which can supply a steady amount of current (generally 5mA) to the semiconductor segments.

  • Electrostatic catridges:

    They were available in 1950s and 1960s. However, they required seperately operated electronics preamplifiers.

  • Optical readout:

    This type of pickup system offers zero wear as they use laser to read the grooves.